The most common form of CBD is in its oil state. How is CBD oil made and extracted? This article highlights the processes CBD oil undergoes, extracted until it becomes the final product.
CBD, also referred to as cannabidiol, is legal and non-intoxicating too. This is because it is naturally derived from the hemp cannabis plant. CBD is non-intoxicating since it does not contain traces of THC. THC is a compound in the cannabis plant which gives its users a high feeling; hence it can be intoxicating when taken in large amounts. Some people prefer CBD to THC because of its non-intoxicating effects and its several health benefits. There are processes used to extract CBD oil. The guide below helps to learn more about the extraction methods.
Farming the Hemp Plant
CBD is extracted from the hemp plant. In the US and Europe, industrial hemp is legal. According to EU relations, CBD is extracted from hemp seeds with less than 0.3 percent THC. The hemp plants are grown to contain high levels of CBD, no THC.
Methods of Extraction
CBD oil is extracted using various methods. They include:
Carbon dioxide is one of the most common ways CBD oil is extracted because CO2 can take form in all states. According to Raber et al. (2015), gas, liquid, and solid C02 extraction normally use closed-loop extractors.
According to Vicente et al. (2015), the carbon dioxide method begins with a substantial part of carbon dioxide placed inside a chamber, which is pumped to another chamber with cannabis. Lazrjani et al. (2021) stated that the pressure ensures that C02 stays in its liquid state to absorb the cannabis plant oils and flavors in the second chamber. The mixture of C02 and cannabis is pumped into another third chamber. In this chamber, the C02 changes to its gas form. This makes it possible for the cannabis plant oils and flavors to be left behind. This method of extraction can produce the purest CBD When performed correctly. Hence it is another reason why it is common. However, it is difficult since the equipment used is very costly.
Ethanol is another common extraction method since it is effective and safe. The ethanol extraction process involves high-grade ethanol, which acts as a solvent. The ethanol separates the CBD compounds and the other cannabinoids from the cannabis plant. This extraction process can be performed in either warm or even cold temperatures. It is also more time-efficient than the other methods of CBD extraction. The final CBD oil in this extraction process is mostly used in vape pens and other products. One disadvantage of this method is that it destroys the plant waxes, which contain medical benefits. It also can destroy the flavors of the plant.
Natural liquid products are used to extract CBD. These substances include hexane and butane. This type of method works similarly to the ethanol and C02 extraction processes. A liquid solvent is passed through the hemp pant to pull out terpenes and other cannabinoids.
This method is less costly, and it is easier too. One of its disadvantages is that some solvents cannot remove the entire impurities and chlorophyll from the cannabis plant, leading to some of them remaining in the oil. This results in the oil having a bitter taste. That is why most CBD manufacturers should ensure that all the impurities have been removed from the oil. Since most of the liquid solvents are flammable, this extraction process is dangerous compared to the others.
Oil infusion is one of the oldest techniques. According to Taiwo et al. (2020), The cannabis plant decarboxylases before the extraction process. It means that it is heated so that its compounds are activated. Add olive oil and heat 100 degrees celsius. One of its disadvantages is that a large amount of oil is used since they do not evaporate from CBD oil.
Some of the above extraction processes may lead to impure CD oil. More manufacturers use secondary processes to purify the oi. These processes include:
According to Wang et al. (2020), the winterization process involves removing unwanted products from the oil so the CBD oil can be purer. CBD oil is mixed with alcohol and stirred until they mix. Hu et al. (2015) revealed that the alcohol used decreases the crude oil, and the desirable section of the crude oil mixes with the alcohol while the undesired parts freeze; they are filtered out.
The mixture is put inside a deep freezer with its temperature at zero degrees. It appears cloudy once it freezes, which means it can be filtered. During filtration, fats and other materials are removed from it. The mixture is put inside vessels, and a paper filter is used. CBD oil stays together with the solution, passing through a filter to remove the desired parts. Once the oil reaches the desired quality, the mixture is heated to the alcohol’s boiling point. The boiling point of alcohol is much lower than that of CBD oil. Once it reaches its boiling point, the alcohol evaporates, leaving behind CBD oil.
Distillation allows the CBD oil to be refined more. Meehan-Atrash et al. (2021) revealed that Distillation begins with heating the CBD oil slowly to allow the unnecessary compound such as terpenes to boil. Vapor is used to separate vapors using a low boiling point.
Once the vapors form, they pass through the distillation tube. They reach the tubes cooling coils, which condense; they are passed down into separate containers. This process keeps going until CBD oil is left alone.
This article explains the different extraction processes and how the actual CBD oil is manufactured. Manufacturing CBD oil is not that easy since some methods have their downfalls. A person can use extraction methods like; carbon dioxide, ethanol, liquid solvents, and oil infusion to extract CBD oil. Also, not all methods will result in pure CBD oil. That is why it is important for you always to check your CBD oils it may contain other contaminants which may be harmful to your health. Ensure to heat the plant in moderate heat during manufacturing. Cool the plant to zero degrees. Some processes require costly equipment, which is another disadvantage.
Hu, G., Li, J., & Hou, H. (2015). A Combination Of Solvent Extraction And Freeze-Thaw For Oil Recovery From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Treatment Pond Sludge. Journal Of Hazardous Materials, 283, 832-840.
Lazarjani, M. P., Young, O., Kebede, L., & Seyfoddin, A. (2021). Processing And Extraction Methods Of Medicinal Cannabis: A Narrative Review. Journal Of Cannabis Research, 3(1), 1-15.
Meehan-Atrash, J., Luo, W., Mcwhirter, K. J., Dennis, D. G., Sarlah, D., Jensen, R. P., … & Strongin, R. M. (2021). The Influence Of Terpenes On The Release Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Active Ingredients To Cannabis Vaping Aerosols. RSC Advances, 11(19), 11714-11723.
Taiwo, O. A. D. O. A., Akinloye, O. A., Oni, E. O., Owolabi, O. P., & Ojo, O. A. (2020). TIME-COURSE EFFECTS OF Cannabis Sativa ON BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (Ache) ACTIVITY AND EXPRESSION OF DOPA DECARBOXYLASE GENE (DDC).
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Wang, Y. H., Avula, B., Elsohly, M. A., Radwan, M. M., Wang, M., Wanas, A. S., … & Khan, I. A. (2018). Quantitative Determination Of Δ9-THC, CBG, CBD, Their Acid Precursors, And Five Other Neutral Cannabinoids By UHPLC-UV-MS. Planta Medica, 84(04), 260-266.
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