CBD has gained global traction thanks to its myriad health benefits for the human body, such as treating insomnia, anxiety, and depression. The article below explores all there is to know regarding CBD, the different types of CBD, the other CBD products, the possible side effects of CBD, and the safety measures to keep in mind before purchasing CBD.

Since the discovery of CBD and its products to the global market, most people have ditched other inorganic substances and bagged CBD products since they are organic. CBD is derived from the cannabis plant, which has many compounds identified as cannabinoids. marijuana is a cannabis plant strain that contains THC, the primary psychoactive compound of the cannabis plant. In ancient times, cannabis was employed for entheogenic and recreational purposes. It was also infused with other traditional medications to treat various illnesses such as flu and general body pain.


According to Johnson (2019), CBD, or cannabidiol, is an organic compound derived from hemp. People often confuse CBD with marijuana since they are both sourced from the cannabis plant. However, unlike marijuana, CBD does not cause psychoactive effects in the body. Scientists first came across CBD in the 1940s, and over the years, it has risen to be one of the most common organic products in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. CBD works in the body by interacting with the endocannabinoid system, which oversees primary physiological body functions like sleep, mood, and anxiety.



According to Pamplona et al. (2018), full spectrum CBD oil consists of high amounts of CBD oil, low levels of THC, and other cannabinoids such as cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC). It also contains other essential compounds such as flavonoids and terpenes. Most CBD users prefer to consume full spectrum CBD oil over other types of CBD due to the entourage effect; a CBD product consisting of different products from the cannabis plant is more effective than taking CBD on its own. Additionally, the flavonoids and terpenes in the full spectrum have their own specific set of health benefits when consumed. For example, terpenes relieve inflammation and flavonoids protect the body from oxidative stress. However, full spectrum CBD products are not a good option for individuals looking to avoid other cannabinoids and terpenes.


CBD isolate contains pure CBD since it lacks other substances from the cannabis plant. To produce CBD isolate, one must ensure that CBD goes through a ton of processes to ensure it does not contain any contaminants or THC. However, the quality of a CBD isolate product is dependent on the type of extraction process used. This type of CBD is ideal for individuals looking to avoid the various compounds present in cannabis and THC, the primary psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Additionally, because CBD has a nutty and earthy flavor, it may not favor persons who prefer some scent and taste in their products.


Broad spectrum CBD is the fine line between CBD isolate and full spectrum CBD. However, broad-spectrum CBD does not consist of THC, unlike full-spectrum CBD. It only contains CBD and the other cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant. On the flip side, some broad-spectrum products may contain small amounts of THC due to other companies’ different extraction methods.



According to Johnson et al. (2022), CBD oil is formulated by obtaining CBD from hemp and combining it with a carrier oil like an MCT oil or olive oil. The product has many health benefits, such as easing pain and inflammation. In 2018, the FDA endorsed using Epidiolex, a refined CBD oil, in nursing two types of severe epilepsy.


A CBD gummy is a CBD-infused candy. CBD gummies are standard formulations of CBD since they are infused with sugar to mask the earthy and nutty taste of CBD. They are also infused with other ingredients such as oils, sweeteners, flavorings, and pectin. There are different CBD gummies, such as full spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolates.


CBD tinctures are cannabidiol products sourced from hemp and contain about 60-70% alcohol. In essence, a CBD tincture is an alcohol-grounded extract. Resilient alcohol is used since it shelters the cannabinoids from oxidation to obtain a CBD tincture. Since CBD has an earthy flavor, CBD tinctures are infused with flavorings to disguise it. Other manufacturing companies add herbal extracts, supplements, and vitamins based on the primary purpose of the CBD tincture.


CBD capsules are orally consumed pills packed with CBD. They look like regular supplements since they have a gelatin outer casing; only they contain CBD. The chief reason CBD capsules differ from other cannabidiol products is that the CBD is packed in equivalent doses within the capsule. Therefore, CBD capsules reduce the stress of planning out an amount.


CBD creams are classified under the umbrella term CBD tropicals; products rubbed on the skin. As the name suggests, a CBD cream is a topical cream infused with CBD. Often, CBD creams are formulated using water and oil in equal portions. CBD creams are ideal for dry skin since they have a thicker consistency than other CBD topicals like CBD lotions and CBD salves. Additionally, CBD creams are absorbed faster into the skin, which makes them ideal for faster relief.



In 2018, the FDA permitted CBD, in the form of Epidiolex, in treating seizures related to Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut, exceptional types of epilepsy that are common in children under two years old.


Recent studies on CBD show that it can be used as a placebo for individuals battling an addiction to over-the-counter medicines and Schedule 1 drugs like heroin and cocaine. Therefore, CBD eases the withdrawal symptoms that arise with discontinued use of these substances.


Chronic pain refers to continuous pain in a specific part of the body. According to Eskander et al. (2020), CBD effectively relieves chronic muscle pains and joint aches.


CBD has gained popularity globally due to its numerous health advantages for the human body, including the treatment of sleeplessness, anxiety, and depression. Most consumers have abandoned chemical-infused items in favor of CBD products, given their organic nature. There are different types of CBD, all of which have varying degrees of cannabinoids and THC levels. Additionally, CBD is highly versatile. No wonder its many products include CBD oil, CBD tinctures, and CBD gummies. Since the discovery of CBD, it has grown to be one of the most widely used organic compounds in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system, which regulates critical physiological processes, including pain control, emotional response and immune response.


Eskander, J. P., Spall, J., Spall, A., Shah, R. V., & Kaye, A. D. (2020). Cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment of acute and chronic back pain: A case series and literature review. J Opioid Manag, 16(3), 215-8.

Johnson, E., Kilgore, M., & Babalonis, S. (2022). Label accuracy of unregulated cannabidiol (CBD) products: measured concentration vs. label claim. Journal of Cannabis Research, 4(1), 1-7.

Johnson, R. (2019). Defining hemp: a fact sheet. Congressional Research Service, 44742.

Pamplona, F. A., Da Silva, L. R., & Coan, A. C. (2018). The potential clinical benefits of CBD-rich cannabis extracts over purified CBD in treatment-resistant epilepsy are observational data meta-analysis. Frontiers in neurology, 759.

Charlotte Cremers
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MS, University of Tartu
Sleep specialist

Using the acquired academic and professional experience, I advise patients with various complaints about mental health - depressed mood, nervousness, lack of energy and interest, sleep disorders, panic attacks, obsessive thoughts and anxieties, difficulty concentrating, and stress. In my free time, I love to paint and go on long walks on the beach. One of my latest obsessions is sudoku – a wonderful activity to calm an unease mind.

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